Extern And Static Function In C

To restate, using extern in a definition allows overriding an object's or function's linkage, which can be useful in a translation unit consisting of files a user can change and. These functions can be static or nonstatic. cpp file without declaring it with extern “C”. This sample is in response to a question left on my previous post, namely how to call an unmanaged dll from managed code when the dll in question isn’t known until runtime (for instance, the path is stored in the registry, or an xml file, etc etc). If no other declaration for the identifier exists at file scope, the identifier has external linkage. Every variable and function has one of these storage classes; if a declaration does not specify the storage class, a context-dependent default is used:. C language uses 4 storage classes, namely: auto: This is the. A normal member function is accessed using the object and an operator called the dot member access operator. You modify the external interfaces to the function, its parameters and the global variables that it uses. Suppose you have a C function which you want to call from a c++ code but somehow you do not want to include the C header where the function is declared. “static inline” means “we have to have this function, if you use it but don’t inline it, then make a static version of it in this compilation unit” “extern inline” means “I actually have an extern for this function, but if you want to inline it, here’s the inline-version”. C programming storage class. For example all those references: How are you going to pass those from a compilation unit written in C? C doesn't know references. To prevent unreachable code from being added to the final executable if all uses of a function were inlined, it is advised to put the object files of all such. Hi, I’m passing a delegate from C# code to ‘C’ code which expects a function pointer by doing PInvoke. c and want to use in function. 00q 1263Hcustom. The compiler defaults the linkage of symbols such that:. extern "C" makes a function-name in C++ have 'C' linkage (compiler does not mangle the name) so that client C code can link to (i. Intel Fortran does not support generate managed code. In the above code snippet, the factory function GetXyz is declared as extern "C". They are assigned 0 (zero) as default value by the compiler. I will go ahead and answer my own question. edu> Subject: Exported From Confluence MIME-Version: 1. Static Functions in C B y default all functions are implicitly declared as extern , which means they're visible across translation units. The 4 pointer function. Static Data Member in C++. LPStr)] StringBuilder validity); To call the function in C#, you'll need to create a StringBuilder with a capacity of at least 5 (to allow for null termination). Message-ID: 1413335183. 'Auto' Storage Class Specifier A variable declared as ' auto ' qualifier implies that the variable exists/accessible only with in the code block they are declared. #ifdef __cplusplus extern "C" #endif int print(int i, double d); You can declare at most one function of an overloaded set as extern "C" because only one C function can have a given name. c example in the last section, we created a file symio. With extern, we can use both of those classes. For such rare cases D offers native pointers, type casts, access to any C function without any intervening translation, manual memory management, custom allocators and even inline assembly code. If it is outside of any function, then all functions in the file have access to the variable. This means that, like a reference to a static data member, a reference to a static member function does not require an object. In C programming, properties of variables include variable_name, variable_type, variable_size and variable_value. Can someone explain the difference between a static and const variable?. No DDD today, let’s talk a bit about our favorite language after a short night (I should really tell my neighbors that 3am is not the good time to move their furniture all around the flat). If you have functions in a DLL written in C that you want to access from a C language or C++ language module, you should use the __cplusplus preprocessor macro to determine which language is being compiled, and then declare these functions with C linkage if being used from a C++. Extern function in c keyword after analyzing the system lists the list of keywords related and the list of websites with related content, in addition you can see which keywords most interested customers on the this website. So I thought that I would try extern. c source files , there is no guaranteed order in which they will be compiled. Such a practice circumvented the limitation that you cannot declare any linkage for a class member function. DLLIMPORT int CALLINGMETHOD InitDevices(); DLLIMPORT int CALLINGMETHOD. An explicit template declaration can only apply to names of objects, functions, and explicit template instantiations. Hello, everyone! I think in C/C++ programming, you need to define a variable as extern but there is no need to define a function as extern. Which sequence to choose depends upon the code in the function under. This video teaches you how you can share variables between two separate files also declare another variable with same name in another file without errors. SITCON x CCCA 新竹定期聚 #12 - extern/static/inline function/variable in C by susu. An extern variable, function definition, or declaration also makes the described variable or function usable by the succeeding part of the current source file. However, s being static isn't destroyed until the program ends. Ditto "extern". is changed in the corresponding. The static keyword then becomes unnecessary. We can call GetLastInputInfo by creating a method with the extern keyword in a C# class. “extern” keyword is used to extend the visibility of function or variable. h存檔 然後各別編譯 var. In no case is the function compiled on its own, not even if you refer to its address explicitly. The difference is scope of the variable and storage of variable, talking in terms of C and C++. The static specifier signifies that the function cannot be referenced from other files; that is, the name is not exported by the linker. InteropServices; and is used in conjunction with the DllImport attribute, so that your C# program can call functions in other DLLs. It discusses about automatic, register, static. For that reason, only non-member functions can be declared as extern "C", and they cannot be overloaded. These functions can be static or nonstatic. Since the declaration can be done any number of times and definition can be done only once, we can notice that declaration of a function can be added in several C/H files or in a single C/H file several times. A smart programmer may even take advantage of this and register * a C function in the table with the address of some structure containing data about * what to clean up on exit. Extern Vs static: external variables have global scope across the entire program (provided extern declarations are. C / C++ Forums on Bytes. Events that occur at compile time like, a function code is associated with a function call or assignment of value to a variable, are called static/early binding, and when these tasks are accomplished during runtime they are called dynamic/late binding. This is a restriction on static member functions, since the definition should not change or should not be overridden by any other function of derived class. The SystemVerilog function is called inside the C function, the first argument being passed by value, and the second by reference. Even if the function is called multiple times, space for the static variable is allocated only once and the value of variable in the previous call gets carried through the next function call. OK, I Understand. In order to fully understand this, you need to know the difference between a definition and a declaration of a variable. static inline and static extern are both combinations of the two terms. In other words, a function prototype has external linkage by default; using 'extern' is fine, but is redundant. A brief description of all keywords in C programming is given in this tutorial. – datenwolf Oct 12 '14 at 15:57 |. C supports Auto,Static,Global,Extern storage classes, Storage Functions refers the way of data storage, we have various memory locations such as LocalMem(RAM),ExternalMEM(harddisks),CacheMEM,CPU REGISTERS etc. , many versions for the same function name differentiated by their parameter list). Static member functions do not work on an object, so the this pointer is not needed. The static keyword then becomes unnecessary. there are 3 main uses for the static. Thanks and best regards. When I’m invoking that delegate from ‘C’ code,I’m passing a “Char *” buffer as IntPtr to callback method encapsulated by delegate in C# code and expects the delegate to write the value in the memory buffer pointed by IntPtr. In simple words, when you use static on the function you tell the compiler please limit the scope of this function only to this translation unit and do. when static is used with local variables, memory is allotted statically instead of automatically (static variables are used to preserve state. c 2) The declaration at the top says static which means: Mr Compiler, dont go looking in other files for foo's definition, look right here in main. The SystemVerilog function is called inside the C function, the first argument being passed by value, and the second by reference. h: Code: how to declare an external variable of type "enum"?. Search google to have broader view :)). An extern declaration in Source2. If you need to access overloaded functions from C, you can write C++ wrapper functions with different names as the following example demonstrates:. Objective C: Named parameters must be invoked in the order in which they are defined in the method signature. In my opinion this is a flaw in the C language. You can't. The friend function must have the class to which it is declared as friend passed to it in argument. DLLIMPORT int CALLINGMETHOD InitDevices(); DLLIMPORT int CALLINGMETHOD. A static variable inside a function is allocated only once (at program startup) and therefore it keeps its value between invocations. c' tries to access it as extern which the gcc compiler complain as : "undefined reference to `j' ". But, if we make it static, once initialized count will have a scope till the end of main() function and it will carry its value through function calls too. When we declare/define a function as static, these functions can’t be used in other files of the same project. In C programming, variables used within a function are local to that function: Their values are used and then discarded when the function is done. The are four storage classes in C: automatic, register, static, and external. A function declared as extern "C" uses the function name as symbol name, just as a C function. Key Differences Between Static and Dynamic Binding. Parameters uType:Sound type, as identified by an entry in the registry. used is files other than where the variable is defined), and a lifetime over the the entire program run The storage class, static, similarly provides a lifetime over the entire program, however; it provides a way to limit the scope of such variables, these variables are. The idea is to accumulate examples in there and use it as a quick reference. The difference is that a static variable declared inside a function will retain its value between calls to that function. Non-Confidential PDF versionARM DUI0375H ARM® Compiler v5. Search google to have broader view :)). 正确使用const,static,extern. That might be a legitimate use of the word "static". extern on a static function in C++. For example if you define at the top of a fle. Since the declaration can be done any number of times and definition can be done only once, we can notice. Static variables are initialized as 0 if not initialized explicitly. So I thought that I would try extern. * In the case of a function that takes no arguments, it will simply be ignore within the * function itself. Function names may not be changed in C as C doesn’t support function overloading. The extern keyword in C does not specify a storage class, it specifies a linkage type. In this C tutorial, we are going to learn about the two storage classes auto (automatic) and static. h instead of string. InteropServices; and is used in conjunction with the DllImport attribute, so that your C# program can call functions in other DLLs. The title was just a trick to provoke your interest In this post, I’ll first try to explain why it is impossible to override static methods and then provide two common ways to do it. Function declarations at block scope can use extern or none at all. cpp In both. Since the declaration can be done any number of times and definition can be done only once, we can notice. c and want to use in function. At one point, the kernel could not function properly when you forced the compiler to not inline functions. My function works, but works like in 50% - it have to return number and table. Table 1 illustrates how C and C++ determine the linkage for a function from the storage class specifier and the scope of the function’s declaration. It has different meanings, depending on the context. None)] public unsafe static extern bool ReadDirectoryChangesW(SafeFileHandle hDirectory, HandleRef lpBuffer, int nBufferLength, int bWatchSubtree, int dwNotifyFilter, out int lpBytesReturned, NativeOverlapped* overlappedPointer, HandleRef lpCompletionRoutine); ///// Serial Port structs ///// // Declaration for C# representation of Win32 Device. All properties of Static Function and How to call a Static. It has no effect on scope and only affects the storage of a variable. C file and you use it as extern in the other. From: Hannes Eder <> Subject [PATCH 28/43] drivers/net/skfp: fix sparse warning: Should it be static? Date: Sat, 14 Feb 2009 22:43:15 +0100. You can find requests for static methods in interfaces all over the internet. 4, paragraph 3 [ISO/IEC 9899:2011], states. If this is done, the variable is initalised at compilation time and retains its value between calls. 11/04/2016; 2 minutes to read +1; In this article. I've seen environments where strdup() was declared in stdlib. The static keyword then becomes unnecessary. These point to any existing type or namespace. C++ keywords: extern. Extern function in c keyword after analyzing the system lists the list of keywords related and the list of websites with related content, in addition you can see which keywords most interested customers on the this website. Objective-C Tuesdays: extern and global variables class or function. According to the rule of static in C++, only static member function can access static data members. The static keyword (static and extern are mutually exclusive), applied to the definition of an external variable, changes this a bit: the variable can only be accessed by the functions in the same module where it was defined. If it is declared for a function name: By default function is extern. Non-Static method in C# Read More ». First, I had a struct (siteStruct) declared globally as static, however I couldn't access it in another class. A brief description of all keywords in C programming is given in this tutorial. In this C tutorial, we are going to learn about the two storage classes auto (automatic) and static. Add following code in button click event in which first create struct object and then pass it to function. Events that occur at compile time like, a function code is associated with a function call or assignment of value to a variable, are called static/early binding, and when these tasks are accomplished during runtime they are called dynamic/late binding. "static" allocates memory in the heap not on the stack. A smart programmer may even take advantage of this and register * a C function in the table with the address of some structure containing data about * what to clean up on exit. I have tried using extern but this gives unresolved external symbol errors. Static variable can be declared outside of all functions or within a function using static keyword before the data type of variable. h instead of string. I see the value of following static by extern -- the bug report provides an example. Example - Static function can access only static variable. The storage class specifiers in C and C++ are: auto extern mutable register static typedef A storage class specifier is used to refine the declaration of a variable, a function, and parameters. Static members in C++ Static Members. But when we use static it restricts visibility of the function to the translation unit in which it's defined. The extern modifier is most commonly used when there are two or more files sharing the same global variables or functions as explained below. The file attributes" 43D71I38"or our limited purposes include at lea" 76D48I18"e following flags. At the top level of a translation unit (that is, a source file with all the #includes after the preprocessor), every C program is a sequence of declarations, which declare functions and objects with external linkage. There are different ways to use a static variables: 1- In class defintions: static variables have a single value along all the instantiations of the class, and do not require an object of a class to be used, and btw, they are initialised automatically, so you don't have to worry about initialising them. All functions are 'extern' by default, IIRC, unless they are 'static'. storage is automatically allocated on function/block entry and automatically freed when the function/block is exited may not be used with global variables (which have storage space that exists for the life of the program) auto is the default for function/block variables. I was able to get around this by making a binding to an Obj-C static library which then calls these extern C functions. how is it keep seperately in the memory). What I would like to know is what is the proper way to do this so that I'm making only one single Sphere object. git: AUR Package Repositories | click here to return to the package base details page. In a C program, this can be accomplished by defining the macro: #define db2xa_switch_std (*db2xa_switch_std) #define db2xa_switch_static_std (*db2xa_switch_std). In a function declaration, "extern" has no effect as to whether the declaration is a definition or not---all it. In C and C++, extern is a declaration of a variable or function, said declaration including the fact that the definition of that variable or function will occur in a different compilation unit. Because all tutorials of Marshal Struct in MSDN Library are set in/out attribute as parameter to return a sturct from unmanage code. extern "C" C++ has a special keyword to declare a function with C bindings: extern "C". If this is done, the variable is initalised at compilation time and retains its value between calls. #ifdef __cplusplus extern "C" #endif int print(int i, double d); You can declare at most one function of an overloaded set as extern "C" because only one C function can have a given name. The purpose of these is to limit scope of a variable or function to a file. “extern” keyword is used to extend the visibility of function or variable. The extern means, roughly, “this is defined elsewhere”. c file that a variable is declared somewhere else, do not bother looking for it. For example: extern int x; extern float y; I think I understand the meaning (declaration without definition), but I wonder. Following static > by extern, though valid, is also a C feature of doubtful value. During the second function call, c is not initialized to 1 again. o The resulting executable file (myprog) will contain machine code for all the functions defined in test. To avoid linking problems, C++ supports extern "C" block. Static Classes and Static Class Members (C# Programming Guide) 07/20/2015; 5 minutes to read +10; In this article. h Zend/zend_closures. In C programming, properties of variables include variable_name, variable_type, variable_size and variable_value. I know how to call unamanaged function from managed code, i know how to call win32, pure native functions from C# code. C / C++ Forums on Bytes. edu> Subject: Exported From Confluence MIME-Version: 1. You can use keyword extern to indicate the naming protocol of the function, for example,. c' tries to access it as extern which the gcc compiler complain as : "undefined reference to `j' ". When you take this off the void printf (char *p); the function declaration, use the out function to you is the standard C function, so the normal compile So as you say, you generate static library is not void printf (char *p); this custom functions, realization of the standard printf C only. In C, static is a storage class (not to be confused with classes in object-oriented programming), as are extern, auto and register (which are also reserved words). We will learn about Static Variables , their syntax and Simple Program to understand the concept. What is the best way to do this?. The value c is increased by 5. Here are some important points about extern keyword in C language, External variables can be declared number of times but defined only once. User-Defined Types: None. Static variables are initialized only once at the time of declaration only. A function where all the declarations (including the definition) mention inline and never extern. With extern, we can use both of those classes. static function declaration in header file. Second, static member functions can directly access other static members (variables or functions), but not non-static members. What does "volatile" tells us? And P. cn All Rights Reserved * @file c_types. By default, all global identifier has the external linkage and each declaration of a particular identifier with external linkage denotes the same object or function. Objective C: Named parameters must be invoked in the order in which they are defined in the method signature. I've read that this can be done if the callback function is a > static method. ANSI C grammar, Lex specification (This Lex file is accompanied by a matching Yacc file. [crayon-5d5e7f782b7c7785738159/] a and b are called local variables. Variables r and s are declared inside test_function() so can only be used inside that function. It has different meanings, depending on the context. h where it was supposed to be. Static storage class can be specified for automatic as well as external variables such as: static extern varx; Static automatic variables continue to exist even after the block in which they are defined terminates. org are unblocked. OK, I Understand. static void A(int i); extern "C" void Test(char c, A a); I hope some one will advice me to close the case since I was stuck on it long. From cppreference. That is not the case with every C++ implementation, although it is reasonably common. A global variable, or a global function, is one that is available to all C modules (a. You can use keyword extern to indicate the naming protocol of the function, for example,. Explanation. This is a very useful capability of the C# language, because there are cases where you need. Let's see an example of a static variable. The extern modifier declares a link to its original variable or function declaration. The difference is that a static variable declared inside a function will retain its value between calls to that function. pass parameter to extern C function (xine): null pointers used, what to do within C++? how to call such a funktion. A static local variable is different from a local variable as a static local variable is initialized only once no matter how many times the function in which it resides is called and its value is retained and accessible through many calls to the function in which it is declared, e. what is the equivalent of static from vb. You then use “extern” from another file to gain access to it. The extern statement does not declare a variable, but just references a global variable which was declared in another file. 'static' inside 'extern "C"' is valid; an entity so declared has internal linkage, and so does not have a language linkage. For external declarations the default storage class specifier will be extern and for internal declarations it will be auto. The part about disambiguating across libraries actually helped me deal with an issue I had today. c file that a variable is declared somewhere else, do not bother looking for it. Das Schlüsselwort ist ein Zusatz bei der Deklaration von Variablen und Funktionen. In C, static is a storage class (not to be confused with classes in object-oriented programming), as are extern, auto and register (which are also reserved words). Once you start to optimize your code, read about patterns, and so on, you realize it is an interesting idea using static data members to keep a single copy of something you may use in all the instances of your class (instead of having a copy in each object). An internal stati - C. Naturally you need to use the full function prototype:. if you do it, you can take the address of a function that is declared inline (at least, it works for me on GCC). I Was So Poor I Wore A Potato Sack Dress To School. I know, I know. In this context, 'static' pairs up with 'extern' to control the scope of a variable or function name. For example, in the symbol. The difference is scope of the variable and storage of variable, talking in terms of C and C++. However, whether such a process can be called static linking is controversial. A local static variable is a variable that can maintain its value from one function call to another and it will exist until the program ends. In particular, show how to call the shared library function if the library is available, otherwise use an internal equivalent function. If the C name is not explicitly specified then it is assumed to be the same as the SQL function name. In local variables, static is used to store the variable in the statically allocated memory instead of the automatically allocated memory. The reason is C compiler requires the entire structure elements to be placed together. txt) or read online for free. static (in Visual Basic Static und Shared) ist ein Schlüsselwort in diversen Programmiersprachen wie z. is changed in the corresponding. Static variable can be declared outside of all functions or within a function using static keyword before the data type of variable. specify the somelib. c編譯時 提示 未定義的 globalVar 未定義的 function 請問我是漏了什麼步驟嗎? 2017年6月7日 下午11:47. A storage class also defines the scope, visibility and life-time of a variable or function with in the program. In the func function, the address of the global variable i is used to initialize the static pointer variable external_i. step 2: Link the program's. If you have to call a function with access to a class's private parts from C, you have to declare it as extern "C" and make it a friend of. The SystemVerilog function exported to C has an input of a type int (a small value), and a packed array as an output. For gcc, it is best to either declare the functions as extern inline and, in additional module, provide a global definition of the function, or to declare the functions as static inline and live with the multiple local symbol definitions that this produces. Create a function and then compile the assembly source to an object file. You access a static member using the type name instead of a reference or a … Static vs. Why declaration by extern doesn't work with static functions? Because extern indicates external linkage while static indicates internal linkage. The static keyword then becomes unnecessary. In order to maintain value between function calls, the static variable takes its presence. Its value is increased by 5. All working registers used in the interrupt function are stored on the stack if a register bank is not specified with the using attribute. It has different meanings, depending on the context. It is required in order to prevent the mangling of the function name. I'm guessing the only way to do this would be perhaps to initiate a Sphere object within spaceObjects but then there's no point in that since the whole point of this was to only have one. Functions have the same linkage property that variables do. This provides more flexibility should the implementation need to change. While the compiler does handle references in certain cases (see examples in the SDK), perhaps the "__shared__" qualifier is lost or discarded when pointers are passed this way--leading to undefined behavior (which in this case meant device hang). C Programming Interview Questions and Answers_ Static Variable in c - Free download as PDF File (. You did get one thing wrong, though: the VS2005 UI does support library aliases directly without getting into MSBuild. C++ restricts the use of the extern storage class specifier to the names of objects or functions. Also, in standard C, a function is always external, but some compiler extensions allow a function to be defined inside a function. named parameters. static void myFunc(int x); static void myFunc( int x) { //do stuff } main() I want to use myFunc(int x) in another class. Therefore, a non-static inline function is always compiled on its own in the usual fashion. public static extern System. The MessageBeep function plays a waveform sound. For example, in the symbol. External ( extern ) storage class in C Programming Variables of this storage class are "Global variables" Global Variables are declared outside the function and are accessible to all functions in the program Generally , External variables are declared again in the function using keyword extern In order to Explicit declaration of variable use 'extern' […]. Here are some important points about extern keyword in C language, External variables can be declared number of times but defined only once. c is makes 'i' visible in that file. Clone via HTTPS Clone with Git or checkout with SVN using the repository’s web address. we'll look at using the static keyword to make to make a global variable "private" to a. The keyword extern is optional for a function prototype. To prevent the C++ compiler from mangling the name of a function, you can apply the extern "C" linkage specifier to the declaration or declarations, as shown in the following example:. For such rare cases D offers native pointers, type casts, access to any C function without any intervening translation, manual memory management, custom allocators and even inline assembly code. If this happens, ensure you have extern “C” in your header file and that the header file is actually included by the. c ar -crv libio. If a static variable is declared outside all the functions in a program, it can be used only in the program in which it is declared and is not visible to other program files(as in extern). So we can call from other file (one. * In the case of a function that takes no arguments, it will simply be ignore within the * function itself. auto register extern static In this article, we will discuss the 'static' storage class and explain how to use static variables and static. Static object is an object that persists from the time it's constructed until the end of the program. Well, this silently assumes that the calling convention of static methods is identical to the calling conventions of an extern "C" function, which might not be the case. the above example exactly clears up your confusion. c 1769Hcustom. Just for understanding extern is used to declare a global variable or function in another file. Static automatic variables exist until the program ends in the same manner as external variables. They exist even if no objects of the class have been defined. When declared outside all the functions in the program its declaration does need to be preceded by the keyword. But global objects, objects at namespace scope, objects declared static inside classes/functions, and objects declared at file scope are included in static objects. In other words, you cannot use the new operator to create a variable of the class type. A static variable can either be internal or external depending upon the place of declaration. We use cookies for various purposes including analytics. This feature helps resolve ambiguities. In other words, making a function static limits its scope. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. C functions and data can be accessed only if they are previously declared as having C linkage. The members of class can be declared as static in C++. These functions can be used in any other source file of the same project which has many other files. c and want to use in function. C++ keywords: extern. Also, in standard C, a function is always external, but some compiler extensions allow a function to be defined inside a function. This sample is in response to a question left on my previous post, namely how to call an unmanaged dll from managed code when the dll in question isn’t known until runtime (for instance, the path is stored in the registry, or an xml file, etc etc). named parameters. Static members of a class are not associated with the objects of the class: they are independent variables with static or thread (since C++11) storage duration or regular functions. ceval(cfun_name) executes the external C/C++ function specified by cfun_name. This lecture is produced by S. Here are some important points about extern keyword in C language, External variables can be declared number of times but defined only once. This may be changed by adding a 'linkage specification' such as extern "C", which is a way. Linkage of an object says how is the object propagated through the whole program. Can someone please explain me why did I need this. 00v 3772Hcustom. An internal stati - C. Name mangling is not desirable when linking C modules with libraries or object files compiled with a C++ compiler. Static storage class can be specified for automatic as well as external variables such as: static extern varx; Static automatic variables continue to exist even after the block in which they are defined terminates. Just for understanding extern is used to declare a global variable or function in another file. I was leaning toward using the static method approach until I saw a posting that said compatibility between static C++ functions and C is not guaranteed in the respective language standards. Use the extern modifier to indicate that the actual storage and initial value of a variable, or body of a function, is defined in a separate source code module. A static variable inside a function is allocated only once (at program startup) and therefore it keeps its value between invocations. clang trunk: extern "C"/static problem. But, if we make it static, once initialized count will have a scope till the end of main() function and it will carry its value through function calls too. The keyword extern implements external linkage. These features basically include the scope, visibility and life-time which help us to trace the existence of a particular variable during the runtime of a program. , many versions for the same function name differentiated by their parameter list).